Article Library

Cleaner Air in the Dental Office

By Joseph Zeisler BSc, MSc, DDS

The dental office is unique in that both Dentist and their Patients share the same air and all need to be protected against hazardous materials...


Going to Work Sick is Bad for Business

By Wendy Leung

There's a growing consensus that ill employees could be doing more harm than good by reporting for duty with a cold or flu as the spread of illness through indoor air in the workplace is an ever increasing concern...



Athletes who get sick less often win more medals, study finds

By Alex Hutchinson

If there is one thing we should take away from data, it is that these little things matter. Dodge a cold here, avoid a stomach bug there, and you might just make it to the podium...



Office printers emit hazardous [airborne] particles

By CBC News

Having a desk next to an office printer may be as bad as sitting next to someone who's smoking, scientist says. The printer may be a source of indoor air pollution and a potential health hazard, a CBC investigations team has found...


World Health Organization - Air Pollution Is The World's 'Largest Single Environmental Risk'

By Indrani Basu

Air pollution is the world's "largest single environmental risk", according to the World Health Assembly. The assembly passed a "landmark" resolution on air pollution after debating the topic for the first time ever...


Is Your Office Killing You

By Michelle Conlin with John Carey in Washington

Sick buildings are seething with molds, monoxide--and worse. Even the Environmental Protection Agency, have claimed they suffered sick-building-related illnesses. Cases like these happen so often, in fact, that the World Health Organization estimates that one out of every three workers may be toiling away in a workplace that is making them sick...



Ski wax chemicals build up in people's blood, pose risks

By Cheryl Katz

If Now scientific research suggests that ski wax [odors in the air] can expose users to perfluorochemicals (PFCs) that build up in their bodies and may carry potentially serious health risks, including cardiovascular disease, liver damage, hormone disruption and cancer...



Studies Show Improved IAQ [indoor air quality] Leads to More Productivity

By Jim Rosenthal

Numerous studies show that improving the Indoor Air Quality will lead to higher worker productivity. Measures to improve IAQ don't cost - they pay!!...



Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: A brief review of the literature and infection control implications

By Stephen Harrel DDS; John Molinari PhD

We review relevant literature that has addressed the presence and makeup of dental aerosols and splatter. We also assess the threats that may be inherent in this airborne material, including risk potential to patients and the dental team. We make recommendations for the control of dental aerosols and splatter...



Associations of Cognitive Function Scores in Office Workers

By Joseph G. Allen, Piers MacNaughton, Usha Satish,

Suresh Santanam, Jose Vallarino, John D. Spengler

The indoor environment plays a critical role in our overall well-being. This study measured the ability of workers to perform under "normal" building conditions and "green" building conditions. The results indicated that peoples' thinking improved between 61% and 101%...



In the Air Tonight

By Paul Feuerstein, DMD 2011

Surgically Clean Air, shipped me the largest box I have ever received to do a product evaluation. The Air Purifier stood about four feet high and, as per instructions, it was placed in the hallway leading to my treatment rooms. This unit, which is remarkably quiet, has six stages of air purification, as well as sterilization. There is a series of filters, which can remove particles as small as .01 microns, by using UV lights within the filtration area, microorganisms are destroyed...



Work-Related Accidents & Occupational Diseases in Veterinarians & their Staff,

By Albert Nienhaus et al., International  Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, April 2005

This study assessed the occupational hazards in veterinary practice by analyzing 10,000 veterinary practices comprising about 27,500 veterinarians & staff. It found that claims of occupational disease are filed 2.7X more often by veterinarians/staff than by general practitioners/staff. The occupational diseases filed most often concern the skin (39%), followed by allergic respiratory diseases (30.5%)...



Hidden in Plain Sight

By Greenpeace, July 2016

A recent investigation by Greenpeace* has found hazardous poly-fluorinated chemicals in the indoor air of stores selling outdoor gear. The results show that concentrations of PFCs in the air in outdoor stores in Europe were 20 to 60 times higher than air samples collected in Greenpeace's office and storage rooms in Hamburg and up to 1000 times higher than urban outdoor air....



For NCAA Tournament Teams, Germs can be Toughest Opponents

By George Schroeder | USA TODAY Sports, March 2015

I've told a lot of people I'd rather have an injury because I can treat it," said Lance Schuemann, Wyoming's associate athletic trainer for men's basketball and 'it seems viruses can do more damage to teams' performance in college basketball". College basketball season essentially coincides with cold and flu season. For basketball teams, the calendar isn't changing. And given the nature of the sport a couple dozen people constantly in close contact with each another, whether during practices or in locker rooms or on buses and planes, preventing illness and its rapid spread is especially difficult...



Which Jobs are Most Damaging to Your Health?

By Andy Kiersz, Quant Reporter, Business Insider November 2015

Some jobs intrinsically have more health risks than others. To rank the most unhealthy jobs in America, they used data from the Occupational Information Network, a US Department of Labor database full of detailed information on occupations.  The #1 most unhealthy job in the USA is Dentist, along with 5 other medical occupations that were in the Top 10 (Anesthesiologists #3, Veterinarians #4, Podiatrists #5, Histotechnologists #7, Surgical and medical assistants #10).  Noticeably the medical occupations ranked ahead of jobs such as Mining Machine Operators #17, and Chemical Plant Operators #19...




Indoor Air Quality in a Dentistry Clinic

By C.G. Helmis, J. Tzoutzas, H.A. Flocas, C.H. Halios, O.I. Stathopoul, V.D. Assimakopoulos, V. Panis, M. Apostolatou, G. Sgouros, E. Adam,  2007

The indoor air quality of a dentistry clinic was studied and it was found that the indoor air quality with respect to TVOCs, CO2 and PM was critical in the dentistry clinic due to the use of specific substances for dental operations, cleaning processes and also the high number of occupants in the room. The commonly used natural ventilation was not able to offer sufficient air renewal. Therefore, it is essential to improve the ventilation in order to prevent the occupants from inhaling high pollutant concentrations, especially the doctors who spend most of their everyday time in these environments...



Effectiveness of an Air Cleaner in a Hospital-based Dental Clinic in China

Article by Chun Chen, Bin Zhao, Weilin Cui, Lei Dong, Na An and Xiangying Ouyang | 2009

Dental healthcare workers are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients mouths during treatment. They evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic in China. The research concluded that an standalone air cleaner with a +700 CFM air rate (0.35 m3/s) can protect the dental healthcare workers with a +700 CFM air rate...



Role of Air Cleaners in Dental Offices in India

Article by Nidhi Yadav, Bhavana Agrawal, Charu Maheshwari | Published: 2015 SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences

During dental treatment, several thousand droplets are aerosolized. The larger droplets fall quickly to the floor, leaving dry microscopic droplet nuclei which remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time and require prolonged hours to settle down. These bacteria and viruses become highly mobile in the air. Microorganisms in excess of that of outdoor air are present in dental surgery. The article concludes 'Due to their highly effective technology in reducing the level of bioaerosols and other advantages filters prove to be an exceptional means of controlling air borne infections in dental clinics, and hence, provide better indoor air quality'...


The Need for Air Cleaners in Dental Offices in Romania

Article by Lucia Bârlean, Luminiþa Smaranda Iancu, Manuela Luminiþa Minea, Ioan Dãnilã,Dana Baciu | Published: 2010

During dental treatment, staff and patients can be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria and viruses. The fine microbial aerosols generated from the high-speed handpiece can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time. The research concludes 'results demonstrated higher air contamination after dental treatments as compared to levels for the beginning of the working day. Ultrasonic scaling is one of the most air-contaminant dental treatment procedures. Effective preventive measures and international/national standards are necessary in order to control dental office air contamination and decrease the risk of infection for dental staff and patients...



Important Role for Standalone Indoor Air Purification Systems in a Dental Laboratory

Article by Dental Technology Today | Published: Spring 2017

Most people do not know how harmful their indoor air can be. The US. EPA states that 68% of human disease is spread through indoor air (1). When it comes to the air in a dental laboratory, these concerns become even greater. According to the US Department of Labor’s statistics, working as dental professional is one of the most damaging jobs to people’s health (2). Why is this the case? This is due largely to the fact that many dental laboratories do not pay enough attention to their indoor air quality.  Laboratory owners believe that they are well protected through...




Productivity and Health Benefits from Better Indoor Environment - Estimating the Benefits

Article by William J. Fisk Lawrence Berkeley National

Laboratory | Published: February 1999

Sick Building Syndrome symptoms are a hindrance to work and can cause absences from work. In an experimental study (Menzies et al. 1997), workers provided with individually-controlled ventilation systems reported fewer SBS symptoms and also reported that indoor air quality at their workstation improved productivity by 11% relative to a 4% decrease in productivity for the control population of workers. Workers who reported any SBS symptoms took 7% longer to respond in a computerized neurobehavioral test had a 30% higher error rate in a second computerized neurobehavioral test...



Stale Office Air Is Making You Less Productive

Article by Joseph G. Allen | Published: March 21, 2017

Sick Breathing better air led to significantly better decision making performance among our participants. We saw higher test scores across nine cognitive function domains.  The results showed the biggest improvements in areas that tested how workers used information to make strategic decisions and how they plan, stay prepared, and strategize during crises...



Air Pollution Is Making Office Workers Less Productive

Article by Tom Y. Chang, Joshua Graff Zivin, Tal Gross, Matthew Neidell | Published: September 29, 2016

[In a Chinese call center] we found a surprisingly robust relationship between daily air pollution levels and worker productivity. The findings suggest that workers are 5%-6% more productive when air pollution levels are rated as good by the Environmental Protection Agency (AQI 0-50) versus when they are rated as unhealthy (AQI of 150-200)...



Pollution Particles 'Get into Brain'

Article by David Shukman | Science Editor

Published:  September 5, 2016

Suspected of toxicity, the particles of iron oxide could conceivably contribute to diseases like Alzheimer's - though evidence for this is lacking. The finding - described as "dreadfully shocking" by the researchers - raises a host of new questions about the health risks of air pollution. Many studies have focused on the impact of dirty air on the lungs and heart. Now this new research provides the first evidence that minute particles of what is called magnetite, which can be derived from pollution...


Air Pollution: 'Heart Disease Link Found'

Article by Smitha Mundasad | Health reporter

Published:  April 26 2016

Researchers speculate the particles could then build up in blood vessels and raise the risk of heart disease. They say their early study - based on extremely small particles of gold - brings them a step closer to cracking the "mystery" of how air pollution and heart disease and stroke are linked. The work appears in ACS Nano. Air pollution is estimated to help shorten of the lives of about 40,000 people a year in...


The Open-Office Trap

Article by Maria Konnikova | The New Yorker Magazine

Published:  January 7, 2014

An open environment may even have a negative impact on our health. A recent study of more than 2,400 employees found that as the number of people working in a single room went up, the number of employees who took sick leave increased. Workers in 2-person offices took an average of 50% per cent more sick leave than those in single offices, while those who worked in fully open offices were out an average of 62% more...


A Pilot Study of Bioaerosol Reduction Using an Air Cleaning System During Dental Procedures

Article by C. Pankhurst | British Dental Journal

Published online: October 22 2010

This article investigates an area that is arguably difficult to control - the production of bioaerosols during dental treatments. The authors studied the bioaerosols produced during four different dental procedures (cavity preparation using an air rotor, history taking and examination, ultrasonic scaling and tooth extraction), and the ability of an air cleaning system to reduce their levels. The air cleaning system was effective in significantly reducing bioaerosol levels...




A Laboratory Comparison of Evacuation Devices on Aerosol Reduction

Article by Journal of Dental Hygiene | University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA

Published: Summer 2002

This article lends support for the ADA and CDC recommendation that High Volume Evacuation (HVE) be used during aerosol producing procedures. Currently, no preventive measure is 100% effective; therefore, clinicians are encouraged to use additional methods to minimize the number of airborne particulates produced during intraoral instrumentation...


Menace in the Air

Article by Kavitha P., Jeevarekha M., Muthukumaraswamy A., Malathi K. | Journal of Integrated Dentistry Issue 3 Volume 1

Published: March 2016

Aerosols produced during dental therapy poses a great occupational health hazard to the dental professionals and a great risk of transmitting infectious diseases to the patients. This review discusses aerosols generated from ultrasonic scaling and methods to control it including high-efficiency particulate air filters.


US Dept of Labor - Indoor Air Quality Investigation

Article by US Department of Labor

This report supports the claims about Sick Building Syndrome and Building-Related Illness including the causes, toxic elements and what should be done about it.



Article by Rella Christensen, PhD Dentistry IQ Nov 111, 2006

Dental aerosols are a concern. These airborne particles are composed of debris and microorganisms propelled into the air from the oral cavities of the many people treated throughout the day within the office.  These very small particles can remain suspended at the end of treatment for many hours. When inhaled, their small size allows penetration to the alveoli of the lower respiratory tract, where infectivity is greatly increased. Dentistry's invisible aerosols are inhaled inadvertently by all who enter the office - clinicians, staff, patients, people accompanying patients, service people. Today, air purifiers are not used widely in dental offices, but they are potentially a very effective way to manage aerosols. Effective equipment uses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters renewed at regular intervals.


WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality

Article by World Health Organization (WHO)

Published: 2010

WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radon, and more. This study has great quotes and insight on these various substances and the harmful health effects they can pose in indoor air.



Bacterial Hazards in a Dental Office

Article by Jolanta Sitkowska


Biological factors are constantly present during dental procedures. The authors describe important sources and routes of infection specific for a dental office.


Dental Bioaerosol as an Occupational Hazard in a Dentist's Workplace

Article by Jolanta Sitkowska

Published: Department of Paedodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

The author, on the basis of the literature and own research, characterizes bioaerosol and splatter in a dental surgery and reviews a full range of protective measures against these risk factors.



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